Global Carbon Cycle
Recent efforts have begun to extend Global Climate Models (GCMs) towards Earth System Models (ESMs), where the physical-dynamical GCM also includes key biogeochemical cycles important in determining the Earth’s response to increasing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. EMBRACE aims to improve the representation of key carbon cycle processes in European ESMs, leading to more accurate and reliable future projections.
Atmospheric convection and coupled tropical circulation
Precipitating deep convection is central to many aspects of the tropical climate and its probable response to increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Due to the range of complex processes involved and their interactions across a range of space and timescales, representing moist convection continues to be a major challenge in present-day Earth System Models. EMBRACE aims to significantly improve the parameterization of deep convection and its link to important modes of tropical climate variability in current ESMs.
Land Surface - Climate Interactions
Land-surface processes play a key role in regional climate. EMBRACE will improve the representation of vegetation and soil processes in European ESMs, increasing the reliability of projections of summer drought and heat wave risk.
Coastal and equatorial ocean upwelling
Regions of tropical ocean upwelling, with their cold, nutrient-rich surface waters, do not just provide highly productive ecosystems but are also key regions for the global climate. It is thought that the poor representation of ocean upwelling in current models has larger scale impacts reducing the accuracy of model projections on a global scale. EMBRACE will work to quantify the key upwelling processes and increase model resolution in order to address this issue.